XI.r

Death following exposure or poisoning

Can be intentional, deliberate or inadvertent. May be sudden or delayed. See also under XIs. Death may occur from overdose, poisoning, intoxication, or via asphyxia, arrhythmia, CPA, acute coronary event or be qualified as 'sudden cardiac death'. Laboratory evaluation and forensic measurements of drug(s) and substances of interest on blood or tissue samples at/from autopsy is indicated in any unexplained death (PMID 24365689). See also under XIr

Last update : 24/02/2018
 

Causative drugs

65

Abused drugs/substances (illicit-, street drugs - IV/inhaled)

I.j I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.j - Exogenous lipoid pneumonia
I.m I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.m - ILD with a granulomatous component
I.s I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.s - A mass or masses
I.t I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.t - Pneumoconiosis, talcosis
II.b II - Pulmonary edema - ARDS - Acute respiratory failure
II.b - ARDS
III.a III - Pulmonary hemorrhage
III.a - Alveolar hemorrhage
IV.a IV - Airway involvement
IV.a - Bronchospasm - Asthma
IV.f IV - Airway involvement
IV.f - Severe, catastrophic asthma attack (can be fatal)
IV.g IV - Airway involvement
IV.g - Syncope - Cough syncope
V.f V - Pleural and/or pericardial involvement
V.f - Pneumothorax
V.q V - Pleural and/or pericardial involvement
V.q - Empyema
VI.b VI - Pulmonary vasculopathy
VI.b - Pulmonary arterial hypertension
VI.c VI - Pulmonary vasculopathy
VI.c - Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease
VI.g VI - Pulmonary vasculopathy
VI.g - Foreign body vasculopathy (Excipient lung disease)
VI.i VI - Pulmonary vasculopathy
VI.i - Acute pulmonary hypertension
VI.j VI - Pulmonary vasculopathy
VI.j - Mercury pulmonary embolism
VI.r VI - Pulmonary vasculopathy
VI.r - Septic pulmonary embolism
VI.t VI - Pulmonary vasculopathy
VI.t - Pulmonary artery aneurysm(s)
VII.h VII - Mediastinal involvement
VII.h - Pneumomediastinum
VIII.c VIII - Upper, central, large airway involvement
VIII.c - Upper airway obstruction other than angioedema or hematoma
VIII.d VIII - Upper, central, large airway involvement
VIII.d - Thermal (burns, frostbite), chemical, or caustic facial and/or airway injury
IX.a IX - Neuromuscular / CNS involvement - Disordered breathing during sleep
IX.a - Diaphragm/inspiratory muscle weakness/paralysis (w/wo ARF)
IX.s IX - Neuromuscular / CNS involvement - Disordered breathing during sleep
IX.s - Botulism - Wound botulism
X.u X - Systemic reactions, syndromes and conditions
X.u - Multiple organ dysfunction/failure (MODS/MOF)
X.ac X - Systemic reactions, syndromes and conditions
X.ac - Anti-GBM antibody disease (Goodpasture-like) or flare of
XI.b XI - Miscellaneous
XI.b - Chest pain (acute - subacute)
XI.g XI - Miscellaneous
XI.g - Aspiration, aspiration pneumonia (w/wo demonstrable pharyngeal dysmotility)
XI.m XI - Miscellaneous
XI.m - Pulmonary emphysema - Lung cysts or bullae
XI.r XI - Miscellaneous
XI.r - Death following exposure or poisoning
XII.i XII - Cardiovascular involvement / toxicity
XII.i - Endocarditis (infective)
XII.v XII - Cardiovascular involvement / toxicity
XII.v - Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
XV.q XV - Pulmonary pathology
XV.q - Path: Foreign body deposits/reaction
XV.s XV - Pulmonary pathology
XV.s - Path: Pneumoconiosis (silicosis, talcosis, talcoma)
XV.ag XV - Pulmonary pathology
XV.ag - Path: Foreign body embolism, microangiopathy, vasculopathy
XV.al XV - Pulmonary pathology
XV.al - Path: Pulmonary hypertension incl. angiomatoid vasculopathy
XVI.v XVI - Imaging
XVI.v - Imaging: Diffuse centrilobular micronodules
XVI.ab XVI - Imaging
XVI.ab - Imaging: Cavitating lung nodules (see also Iq, XIs, XIIi, XVIaa and XVIIp)
XVI.ae XVI - Imaging
XVI.ae - Imaging: A pattern similar to progressive massive fibrosis (PMF)
XVI.af XVI - Imaging
XVI.af - Imaging: Lung cysts or bullae (see also XVI ah/bf)
XVII.a XVII - Infections & related conditions
XVII.a - Respiratory tract infection - Pneumonia
XVII.b XVII - Infections & related conditions
XVII.b - Opportunistic pulmonary/systemic infection
XVII.g XVII - Infections & related conditions
XVII.g - Tuberculosis (pulmonary, extrapulmonary, reactivation or de novo)
XVII.p XVII - Infections & related conditions
XVII.p - Lung abscess/abscesses (see also VIr)
XVII.s XVII - Infections & related conditions
XVII.s - Sternoclavicular septic arthritis
XVII.u XVII - Infections & related conditions
XVII.u - Epidural abscess
4

Beta-blockers

I.a I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.a - Pneumonitis (ILD), acute, severe (see also under ARDS)
I.b I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.b - Pneumonitis (ILD)
I.c I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.c - Eosinophilic pneumonia (pulmonary infiltrates and eosinophilia)
I.d I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.d - Organizing pneumonia (or a consistent migratory OP pattern on imaging)
I.g I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.g - Pulmonary fibrosis
I.u I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.u - Relapsing or migrating pneumonitis/pneumonia (see also Id)
II.a II - Pulmonary edema - ARDS - Acute respiratory failure
II.a - Pulmonary edema, noncardiogenic (NCPE)
IV.a IV - Airway involvement
IV.a - Bronchospasm - Asthma
IV.f IV - Airway involvement
IV.f - Severe, catastrophic asthma attack (can be fatal)
V.a V - Pleural and/or pericardial involvement
V.a - Pleural effusion
V.c V - Pleural and/or pericardial involvement
V.c - Pleural thickening/fibrosis - Fibrothorax
V.d V - Pleural and/or pericardial involvement
V.d - Pleural/pericardial effusion, ANA positive (DI lupus)
VI.w VI - Pulmonary vasculopathy
VI.w - Worsening of preexisting PHTn
IX.d IX - Neuromuscular / CNS involvement - Disordered breathing during sleep
IX.d - Ventilatory depression-Hypoventilation (may cause ARF). See also XIe
IX.d IX - Neuromuscular / CNS involvement - Disordered breathing during sleep
IX.d - Ventilatory depression-Hypoventilation (may cause ARF). See also XIe
X.d X - Systemic reactions, syndromes and conditions
X.d - Lupus - Lupus syndrome (see also Vd)
X.y X - Systemic reactions, syndromes and conditions
X.y - Subclinical ANA positivity
XI.r XI - Miscellaneous
XI.r - Death following exposure or poisoning
XI.af XI - Miscellaneous
XI.af - Refractoriness to epineprine in case of anaphylaxis
XII.m XII - Cardiovascular involvement / toxicity
XII.m - Cardiac/cardiopulmonary arrest
1

Chloroquine

I.b I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.b - Pneumonitis (ILD)
I.c I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.c - Eosinophilic pneumonia (pulmonary infiltrates and eosinophilia)
I.e I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.e - Acute eosinophilic pneumonia (AEP)
II.b II - Pulmonary edema - ARDS - Acute respiratory failure
II.b - ARDS
IX.a IX - Neuromuscular / CNS involvement - Disordered breathing during sleep
IX.a - Diaphragm/inspiratory muscle weakness/paralysis (w/wo ARF)
IX.i IX - Neuromuscular / CNS involvement - Disordered breathing during sleep
IX.i - Respiratory arrest - Apnea
X.a X - Systemic reactions, syndromes and conditions
X.a - DRESS (drug rash eosinophilia and hypersensitivity syndrome)
XI.r XI - Miscellaneous
XI.r - Death following exposure or poisoning
XII.f XII - Cardiovascular involvement / toxicity
XII.f - Cardiomyopathy (acute, subacute, chronic)
XII.h XII - Cardiovascular involvement / toxicity
XII.h - Eosinophilic myocarditis
XII.l XII - Cardiovascular involvement / toxicity
XII.l - Cardiac arrhythmias or dysrhythmias (AF, VT, VF, TdP)
XII.m XII - Cardiovascular involvement / toxicity
XII.m - Cardiac/cardiopulmonary arrest
XII.s XII - Cardiovascular involvement / toxicity
XII.s - Heart block (bundle branch- or AV-)
XIV.a XIV - Hemoglobinopathies-Abnormal hemoglobins states (acquired)
XIV.a - Methemoglobinemia
XV.b XV - Pulmonary pathology
XV.b - Path: Eosinophilic pneumonia (subacute or acute) (see also Ic)
XIX.c XIX - Cytology, biochemistry of BAL, pleural fluid or FNA
XIX.c - BAL: An excess proportion of eosinophils
1

Cocaine

I.c I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.c - Eosinophilic pneumonia (pulmonary infiltrates and eosinophilia)
I.d I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.d - Organizing pneumonia (or a consistent migratory OP pattern on imaging)
I.e I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.e - Acute eosinophilic pneumonia (AEP)
II.a II - Pulmonary edema - ARDS - Acute respiratory failure
II.a - Pulmonary edema, noncardiogenic (NCPE)
II.d II - Pulmonary edema - ARDS - Acute respiratory failure
II.d - Acute/subacute pulmonary edema, cardiogenic
III.a III - Pulmonary hemorrhage
III.a - Alveolar hemorrhage
III.b III - Pulmonary hemorrhage
III.b - Pneumorenal syndrome
III.c III - Pulmonary hemorrhage
III.c - Hemoptysis
IV.a IV - Airway involvement
IV.a - Bronchospasm - Asthma
IV.f IV - Airway involvement
IV.f - Severe, catastrophic asthma attack (can be fatal)
IV.o IV - Airway involvement
IV.o - Airway hyperresponsiveness
V.f V - Pleural and/or pericardial involvement
V.f - Pneumothorax
VI.a VI - Pulmonary vasculopathy
VI.a - Pulmonary embolism - Venous thromboembolism
VI.b VI - Pulmonary vasculopathy
VI.b - Pulmonary arterial hypertension
VI.l VI - Pulmonary vasculopathy
VI.l - Acute pulmonary vasoconstriction and PHT
VII.h VII - Mediastinal involvement
VII.h - Pneumomediastinum
VIII.a VIII - Upper, central, large airway involvement
VIII.a - Angioedema (may cause UAO & asphyxia)
VIII.c VIII - Upper, central, large airway involvement
VIII.c - Upper airway obstruction other than angioedema or hematoma
VIII.i VIII - Upper, central, large airway involvement
VIII.i - Midline destructive lesions
VIII.w VIII - Upper, central, large airway involvement
VIII.w - Uvulitis, uvular edema
IX.k IX - Neuromuscular / CNS involvement - Disordered breathing during sleep
IX.k - Trismus (lockjaw)
IX.o IX - Neuromuscular / CNS involvement - Disordered breathing during sleep
IX.o - Pneumorachis
X.f X - Systemic reactions, syndromes and conditions
X.f - Anaphylaxis
X.j X - Systemic reactions, syndromes and conditions
X.j - Myositis/polymyositis/DPM/rhabdomyolysis/myopathy
X.m X - Systemic reactions, syndromes and conditions
X.m - Pulmonary/systemic vasculopathy/vasculitis (ANCA status MPO, unknown or negative)
X.o X - Systemic reactions, syndromes and conditions
X.o - Neutrophilic dermatosis (Pyoderma, Sweet)
X.s X - Systemic reactions, syndromes and conditions
X.s - Pulmonary/systemic vasculitis/polyangiitis (ANCA-positive)
X.u X - Systemic reactions, syndromes and conditions
X.u - Multiple organ dysfunction/failure (MODS/MOF)
X.x X - Systemic reactions, syndromes and conditions
X.x - Subclinical ANCA positivity
X.ac X - Systemic reactions, syndromes and conditions
X.ac - Anti-GBM antibody disease (Goodpasture-like) or flare of
X.ad X - Systemic reactions, syndromes and conditions
X.ad - Skin purpura, ecchymoses or necrosis
X.as X - Systemic reactions, syndromes and conditions
X.as - Scleroderma renal crisis
XI.b XI - Miscellaneous
XI.b - Chest pain (acute - subacute)
XI.m XI - Miscellaneous
XI.m - Pulmonary emphysema - Lung cysts or bullae
XI.n XI - Miscellaneous
XI.n - Neutropenia, agranulocytosis (w/wo infection/sepsis)
XI.r XI - Miscellaneous
XI.r - Death following exposure or poisoning
XII.a XII - Cardiovascular involvement / toxicity
XII.a - Left ventricular dysfunction/failure
XII.e XII - Cardiovascular involvement / toxicity
XII.e - Takotsubo (stress) cardiomyopathy
XII.f XII - Cardiovascular involvement / toxicity
XII.f - Cardiomyopathy (acute, subacute, chronic)
XII.g XII - Cardiovascular involvement / toxicity
XII.g - Myocardial ischemia, coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction
XII.l XII - Cardiovascular involvement / toxicity
XII.l - Cardiac arrhythmias or dysrhythmias (AF, VT, VF, TdP)
XII.y XII - Cardiovascular involvement / toxicity
XII.y - Pneumopericardium
XII.ae XII - Cardiovascular involvement / toxicity
XII.ae - Aortic dissection
XII.af XII - Cardiovascular involvement / toxicity
XII.af - Coronary arterial spasm
XII.aj XII - Cardiovascular involvement / toxicity
XII.aj - Systemic arterial thrombosis
XII.ap XII - Cardiovascular involvement / toxicity
XII.ap - Coronary artery dissection
XIV.c XIV - Hemoglobinopathies-Abnormal hemoglobins states (acquired)
XIV.c - Carboxyhemoglobinemia
XV.b XV - Pulmonary pathology
XV.b - Path: Eosinophilic pneumonia (subacute or acute) (see also Ic)
XV.g XV - Pulmonary pathology
XV.g - Path: Alveolar hemorrhage (see also IIIa)
XV.h XV - Pulmonary pathology
XV.h - Path: Pulmonary fibrosis (NSIP-f pattern) (see also Ig)
XV.w XV - Pulmonary pathology
XV.w - Path: Pulmonary edema (see also II/IIa)
XV.aw XV - Pulmonary pathology
XV.aw - Path: Skin vasculopathy/vasculitis
XVII.b XVII - Infections & related conditions
XVII.b - Opportunistic pulmonary/systemic infection
3

E-cigarette, electronic cigarette, electronic vaporizers/nicotine delivery systems (ENDS)

I.a I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.a - Pneumonitis (ILD), acute, severe (see also under ARDS)
I.b I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.b - Pneumonitis (ILD)
I.c I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.c - Eosinophilic pneumonia (pulmonary infiltrates and eosinophilia)
I.d I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.d - Organizing pneumonia (or a consistent migratory OP pattern on imaging)
I.e I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.e - Acute eosinophilic pneumonia (AEP)
I.j I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.j - Exogenous lipoid pneumonia
I.u I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.u - Relapsing or migrating pneumonitis/pneumonia (see also Id)
I.v I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.v - Subclinical changes in lung function/PFT
III.a III - Pulmonary hemorrhage
III.a - Alveolar hemorrhage
IV.n IV - Airway involvement
IV.n - Obstructive airway dysfunction (see also IVc)
IV.t IV - Airway involvement
IV.t - Bronchitis, chronic bronchitis, bronchorrhea
VII.h VII - Mediastinal involvement
VII.h - Pneumomediastinum
VIII.d VIII - Upper, central, large airway involvement
VIII.d - Thermal (burns, frostbite), chemical, or caustic facial and/or airway injury
X.aq X - Systemic reactions, syndromes and conditions
X.aq - Relapse or flare of preexisting ulcerative colitis
XI.r XI - Miscellaneous
XI.r - Death following exposure or poisoning
XI.ac XI - Miscellaneous
XI.ac - Thermal skin/dermal injury
XV.c XV - Pulmonary pathology
XV.c - Path: Organizing pneumonia (OP/BOOP) pattern (see also Id)
XV.x XV - Pulmonary pathology
XV.x - Path: Acute or subacute bronchiolitis (see also IVc, IVi)
XV.y XV - Pulmonary pathology
XV.y - Path: Respiratory bronchiolitis (RB-ILD-pattern)
XVII.a XVII - Infections & related conditions
XVII.a - Respiratory tract infection - Pneumonia
XIX.n XIX - Cytology, biochemistry of BAL, pleural fluid or FNA
XIX.n - Cytology: Brown-pigmented macrophages
1