Of note, peritracheal and/or submucosal air may obstruct the central airway. See also under Vf. Pneumomediastinum may cause mediastinal shift or compression with consequent respiratory failure (PMID 19748792). Pneumomediastinum can also be observed as a complication of drug-induced pulmonary fibrosis or ARDS, spontaneously or in the context of pulmonary function testing.

Last update : 01/01/1970

Causative drugs


Radiation therapy, stereotactic (SBRT)

I.d I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.d - Organizing pneumonia pattern (an area or areas of consolidation on imaging)
I.k I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.k - Lung nodule or nodules
I.s I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.s - A mass or masses
I.y I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.y - Progression, acceleration or exacerbation of preexisting ILD/fibrosis
I.ab I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.ab - Radiation-induced lung injury (RILI) I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease - Acute radiation pneumonitis
III.h III - Pulmonary/alveolar hemorrhage
III.h - Major/massive hemoptysis
IV.k IV - Airway involvement
IV.k - Bronchiectasis
V.f V - Pleural and/or pericardial involvement
V.f - Pneumothorax
VII.h VII - Mediastinal involvement
VII.h - Pneumomediastinum
VIII.r VIII - Central-large-upper airway (incl pharyngeal-nasal) involvement
VIII.r - Tracheal necrosis, chondronecrosis, perforation
VIII.t VIII - Central-large-upper airway (incl pharyngeal-nasal) involvement
VIII.t - Vocal cord paresis/paralysis
XI.b XI - Miscellaneous
XI.b - Chest pain (acute or subacute), lone or prominent
XI.v XI - Miscellaneous
XI.v - Rib fracture XI - Miscellaneous - Vertebral compression fracture XI - Miscellaneous - Myositis of chest wall muscle(s) (localized)
XVI.k XVI - Imaging
XVI.k - Imaging: An area or areas of consolidation XVI - Imaging - Imaging: An area or areas of avid tracer uptake in the lung/chest on 18F-PET scan