X.a

DRES syndrome - DRESS-like reaction

DRESS stands for 'Drug Rash, Eosinophilia, Systemic Symptoms or Syndrome'. Includes internal organ involvement (liver, bone marrow, kindney, lung, heart in the form of myocarditis (PMID 21658796)) and occasionally MOF/MODS. Respiratory involvement (in about 15% of the patients), is in the form of cough, dyspnea, wheezing, pleural effusion, pulmonary infiltrates or PIE. See also under eosinophilic pneumonia. A precise definition of the syndrome has been available since 1996 (Bocquet et al.). Earlier cases of 'Drug Hypersensitivity' in the literature likely represent authentic DRESS cases. Review and lists of causal drugs at PMID 21592453, 26354734. Reviews at PMID 23602182, 23602183, 25592341, 30140942, 32247873 Cardiac involvement: PMID 35160164
Last update : 01/01/1970
 

Causative drugs

85

Nivolumab

I.a I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.a - Pneumonitis (ILD), acute and/or severe (may cause ARDS)
I.b I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.b - Pneumonitis (ILD)
I.c I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.c - Eosinophilic pneumonia (pulmonary infiltrates and eosinophilia)
I.d I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.d - Organizing pneumonia pattern (an area or areas of consolidation on imaging)
I.e I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.e - Acute eosinophilic pneumonia (AEP)
I.f I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.f - Acute fibrinous organizing pneumonia (AFOP)
I.h I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.h - Subclinical pulmonary infiltrates/ILD
I.ad I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.ad - Radiation recall pneumonitis
I.aj I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.aj - Shrinking lung syndrome
II.b II - Pulmonary edema - Acute lung injury - ARDS
II.b - ARDS - Acute lung injury
II.d II - Pulmonary edema - Acute lung injury - ARDS
II.d - Pulmonary edema, cardiogenic
III.g III - Pulmonary/alveolar./airway hemorrhage/bleeding
III.g - Bleeding/hemorrhage from/around preexisting lung tumor (Localized AH)
III.j III - Pulmonary/alveolar./airway hemorrhage/bleeding
III.j - Anti-GBM-related pneumorenal syndrome and DAH (Goodpasture) or flare of
III.m III - Pulmonary/alveolar./airway hemorrhage/bleeding
III.m - Coagulopathy
IV.a IV - Airway involvement
IV.a - Bronchospasm - Wheezing - Asthma
IV.c IV - Airway involvement
IV.c - Obliterative bronchiolitis (a pattern consistent with) (see also IVn, XVx)
IV.n IV - Airway involvement
IV.n - Obstructive airway dysfunction (see also IVc, XVx)
IV.y IV - Airway involvement
IV.y - Eosinophilic airway disease (asthma, bronchitis, bronchiolitis)
V.a V - Pleural and/or pericardial involvement
V.a - Pleural effusion
V.m V - Pleural and/or pericardial involvement
V.m - Pleuropericardial effusion (ANA unknown or negative)
VI.b VI - Pulmonary vasculopathies
VI.b - Pulmonary arterial hypertension
VIII.t VIII - Central-large-upper airway (incl. pharyngeal-nasal) involvement
VIII.t - Vocal cord paresis/paralysis
IX.a IX - Neuromuscular / CNS involvement - Disordered breathing during sleep
IX.a - Diaphragm/inspiratory muscle weakness/paralysis (w/wo ARF)
IX.d IX - Neuromuscular / CNS involvement - Disordered breathing during sleep
IX.d - Respiratory failure from ventilatory depression
IX.h IX - Neuromuscular / CNS involvement - Disordered breathing during sleep
IX.h - Dyspnea, unexplained otherwise
IX.r IX - Neuromuscular / CNS involvement - Disordered breathing during sleep
IX.r - Myasthenia gravis - Myasthenic-like syndrome
IX.y IX - Neuromuscular / CNS involvement - Disordered breathing during sleep
IX.y - A flare or relapse of preexisting myasthenia gravis
IX.ab IX - Neuromuscular / CNS involvement - Disordered breathing during sleep
IX.ab - Guillain-Barré (or GB-like) syndrome (w/wo ARF)
X.a X - Systemic/Distant conditions, syndromes and reactions
X.a - DRES syndrome - DRESS-like reaction
X.d X - Systemic/Distant conditions, syndromes and reactions
X.d - Lupus - Lupus syndrome (see also Vd)
X.f X - Systemic/Distant conditions, syndromes and reactions
X.f - Anaphylaxis-Anaphylactoid reaction (can be fatal)
X.g X - Systemic/Distant conditions, syndromes and reactions
X.g - Hypersensitivity reaction (may manifest with fever and/or skin, throat or airway involvement)
X.j X - Systemic/Distant conditions, syndromes and reactions
X.j - Myopathy-Myositis-Polymyositis (see also under Xba)
X.k X - Systemic/Distant conditions, syndromes and reactions
X.k - Sarcoid-like granulomatosis (endo-/extrathoracic)
X.m X - Systemic/Distant conditions, syndromes and reactions
X.m - Vascultis (pulmonary, extrathoracic or systemic)-ANCA status unknown or negative)
X.n X - Systemic/Distant conditions, syndromes and reactions
X.n - Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS)
X.s X - Systemic/Distant conditions, syndromes and reactions
X.s - Vasculitis, pulmonary (w/wo AH), extrapulmonary, systemic: ANCA-positive
X.u X - Systemic/Distant conditions, syndromes and reactions
X.u - Multiple organ dysfunction/failure (MODS/MOF)
X.ac X - Systemic/Distant conditions, syndromes and reactions
X.ac - Anti-GBM antibody disease (Goodpasture-like or flare of preexisting GS)
X.ay X - Systemic/Distant conditions, syndromes and reactions
X.ay - Polymyalgia rheumatica
XI.i XI - Miscellaneous
XI.i - Esophageal toxicity
XI.av XI - Miscellaneous
XI.av - Deterioration of graft function in SOT recipients
XI.ax XI - Miscellaneous
XI.ax - Esophageal stenosis/stricture
XII.c XII - Cardiovascular involvement / toxicity
XII.c - Pericardial effusion (w/wo tamponade)
XII.d XII - Cardiovascular involvement / toxicity
XII.d - Myocarditis (can be fulminant)
XII.g XII - Cardiovascular involvement / toxicity
XII.g - Coronary artery disease (acute) - Myocardial ischemia/infarction
XII.n XII - Cardiovascular involvement / toxicity
XII.n - Cardiovascular collapse - Cardiogenic shock - Hypotension
XII.s XII - Cardiovascular involvement / toxicity
XII.s - Heart block (bundle branch- or AV-)
XII.ai XII - Cardiovascular involvement / toxicity
XII.ai - Cardiotoxicity
XII.ax XII - Cardiovascular involvement / toxicity
XII.ax - Necrotizing myocarditis (w/o evidence for CAD)
XV.c XV - Pathology
XV.c - Path: Organizing pneumonia (OP/BOOP) pattern (see also Id)
XV.d XV - Pathology
XV.d - Path: Acute fibrinous organizing pneumonia (AFOP-pattern) (see also If)
XV.g XV - Pathology
XV.g - Path: Alveolar hemorrhage (see also IIIa)
XV.bb XV - Pathology
XV.bb - Path: Airway inflammation
XVI.i XVI - Imaging
XVI.i - Imaging: An area or areas of involvement with a recognizable anatomic distribution
XVI.v XVI - Imaging
XVI.v - Imaging: Centrilobular micronodules (can be diffuse)
XVI.w XVI - Imaging
XVI.w - Imaging: Lung nodule or nodules
XVI.ab XVI - Imaging
XVI.ab - Imaging: Cavitating/cavitary lung nodule, mass or nodules (see also Iq, XIs, XIIi, XVIaa and XVIIp)
XVI.af XVI - Imaging
XVI.af - Imaging: Lung cysts or bullae (see also XVI ah/bf)
XVI.ai XVI - Imaging
XVI.ai - Imaging: A 'tree-in-bud' pattern
XVII.a XVII - Infections & related conditions
XVII.a - Respiratory tract infection incl. pneumonia
XVII.c XVII - Infections & related conditions
XVII.c - Aspergillosis, pulmonary (invasive, allergic [ABPA], or mycetoma)
XVII.g XVII - Infections & related conditions
XVII.g - Tuberculosis (pulmonary, pulmonary, extrapulmonary or disseminated). Reactivation or de novo
XVII.aj XVII - Infections & related conditions
XVII.aj - Bordetella bronchiseptica pulmonary infection
XIX.a XIX - Cytological, biochemical features of/in BAL, pleural fluid or FNA
XIX.a - BAL: An excess proportion of lymphocytes
XIX.b XIX - Cytological, biochemical features of/in BAL, pleural fluid or FNA
XIX.b - BAL: An excess proportion of neutrophils
XIX.c XIX - Cytological, biochemical features of/in BAL, pleural fluid or FNA
XIX.c - BAL: An excess proportion of eosinophils
1

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)

I.c I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.c - Eosinophilic pneumonia (pulmonary infiltrates and eosinophilia)
I.e I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.e - Acute eosinophilic pneumonia (AEP)
II.a II - Pulmonary edema - Acute lung injury - ARDS
II.a - Pulmonary edema, noncardiogenic (NCPE)
IV.a IV - Airway involvement
IV.a - Bronchospasm - Wheezing - Asthma
IV.f IV - Airway involvement
IV.f - Severe or catastrophic bronchospasm or asthma attack (can be fatal)
V.q V - Pleural and/or pericardial involvement
V.q - Empyema
VII.a VII - Mediastinal involvement
VII.a - Lymphadenopathy (intrathoracic)
VIII.a VIII - Central-large-upper airway (incl. pharyngeal-nasal) involvement
VIII.a - Angioedema (may cause UAO, asphyxia and death)
VIII.y VIII - Central-large-upper airway (incl. pharyngeal-nasal) involvement
VIII.y - Sinonasal discharge, -blockage, -obstruction
IX.f IX - Neuromuscular / CNS involvement - Disordered breathing during sleep
IX.f - Hiccup
X.a X - Systemic/Distant conditions, syndromes and reactions
X.a - DRES syndrome - DRESS-like reaction
X.b X - Systemic/Distant conditions, syndromes and reactions
X.b - Antiphospholipid antibodies w/wo the APL syndrome
X.f X - Systemic/Distant conditions, syndromes and reactions
X.f - Anaphylaxis-Anaphylactoid reaction (can be fatal)
X.g X - Systemic/Distant conditions, syndromes and reactions
X.g - Hypersensitivity reaction (may manifest with fever and/or skin, throat or airway involvement)
XI.b XI - Miscellaneous
XI.b - Chest pain (acute or subacute), lone or prominent
XIV.a XIV - Hemoglobinopathies - Abnormal hemoglobin states (acquired)
XIV.a - Methemoglobinemia
1

Phenytoin (diphenylhydantoin)

I.a I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.a - Pneumonitis (ILD), acute and/or severe (may cause ARDS)
I.b I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.b - Pneumonitis (ILD)
I.c I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.c - Eosinophilic pneumonia (pulmonary infiltrates and eosinophilia)
I.d I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.d - Organizing pneumonia pattern (an area or areas of consolidation on imaging)
I.k I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.k - Lung nodule or nodules
II.b II - Pulmonary edema - Acute lung injury - ARDS
II.b - ARDS - Acute lung injury
III.a III - Pulmonary/alveolar./airway hemorrhage/bleeding
III.a - Alveolar hemorrhage, diffuse (DAH)
III.b III - Pulmonary/alveolar./airway hemorrhage/bleeding
III.b - Pneumorenal syndrome (w/wo ANCAs)
IV.a IV - Airway involvement
IV.a - Bronchospasm - Wheezing - Asthma
IV.d IV - Airway involvement
IV.d - Cough (lone)
IV.n IV - Airway involvement
IV.n - Obstructive airway dysfunction (see also IVc, XVx)
VI.d VI - Pulmonary vasculopathies
VI.d - Pulmonary vasculitis or capillaritis
VII.a VII - Mediastinal involvement
VII.a - Lymphadenopathy (intrathoracic)
VII.b VII - Mediastinal involvement
VII.b - Lymphadenopathy with reactive changes
VII.m VII - Mediastinal involvement
VII.m - Malignant lymphoma
X.a X - Systemic/Distant conditions, syndromes and reactions
X.a - DRES syndrome - DRESS-like reaction
X.d X - Systemic/Distant conditions, syndromes and reactions
X.d - Lupus - Lupus syndrome (see also Vd)
X.h X - Systemic/Distant conditions, syndromes and reactions
X.h - Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Churg-Strauss)
X.m X - Systemic/Distant conditions, syndromes and reactions
X.m - Vascultis (pulmonary, extrathoracic or systemic)-ANCA status unknown or negative)
X.u X - Systemic/Distant conditions, syndromes and reactions
X.u - Multiple organ dysfunction/failure (MODS/MOF)
XI.ab XI - Miscellaneous
XI.ab - Gingival hypertrophy
XII.m XII - Cardiovascular involvement / toxicity
XII.m - Cardiac/cardiopulmonary arrest
XII.x XII - Cardiovascular involvement / toxicity
XII.x - Sinus arrest
XII.as XII - Cardiovascular involvement / toxicity
XII.as - Giant cell myocarditis
XIII.b XIII - Neoplastic conditions
XIII.b - Lymphoproliferative disease (pulmonary, endobronchial, endothoracic)
XIV.a XIV - Hemoglobinopathies - Abnormal hemoglobin states (acquired)
XIV.a - Methemoglobinemia
XV.m XV - Pathology
XV.m - Path: Lymphoid hyperplasia (including nodular- or a lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia pattern)
XV.ab XV - Pathology
XV.ab - Path: Pulmonary capillaritis
XV.ac XV - Pathology
XV.ac - Path: Pulmonary vasculitis other than capillaritis
XV.af XV - Pathology
XV.af - Path: Granulomatous pulmonary vasculitis
XIX.a XIX - Cytological, biochemical features of/in BAL, pleural fluid or FNA
XIX.a - BAL: An excess proportion of lymphocytes
2

Quinine

I.b I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.b - Pneumonitis (ILD)
I.c I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.c - Eosinophilic pneumonia (pulmonary infiltrates and eosinophilia)
I.d I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.d - Organizing pneumonia pattern (an area or areas of consolidation on imaging)
II.a II - Pulmonary edema - Acute lung injury - ARDS
II.a - Pulmonary edema, noncardiogenic (NCPE)
II.b II - Pulmonary edema - Acute lung injury - ARDS
II.b - ARDS - Acute lung injury
II.j II - Pulmonary edema - Acute lung injury - ARDS
II.j - Transient pulmonary opacities/infiltrates (see also under Iav)
III.a III - Pulmonary/alveolar./airway hemorrhage/bleeding
III.a - Alveolar hemorrhage, diffuse (DAH)
III.m III - Pulmonary/alveolar./airway hemorrhage/bleeding
III.m - Coagulopathy
VIII.b VIII - Central-large-upper airway (incl. pharyngeal-nasal) involvement
VIII.b - Hematoma of/around central airway wall potentially causing UAO
VIII.d VIII - Central-large-upper airway (incl. pharyngeal-nasal) involvement
VIII.d - Thermal (burns, frostbite), chemical or caustic facial and/or airway injury
X.a X - Systemic/Distant conditions, syndromes and reactions
X.a - DRES syndrome - DRESS-like reaction
X.f X - Systemic/Distant conditions, syndromes and reactions
X.f - Anaphylaxis-Anaphylactoid reaction (can be fatal)
X.g X - Systemic/Distant conditions, syndromes and reactions
X.g - Hypersensitivity reaction (may manifest with fever and/or skin, throat or airway involvement)
X.h X - Systemic/Distant conditions, syndromes and reactions
X.h - Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Churg-Strauss)
X.m X - Systemic/Distant conditions, syndromes and reactions
X.m - Vascultis (pulmonary, extrathoracic or systemic)-ANCA status unknown or negative)
X.ad X - Systemic/Distant conditions, syndromes and reactions
X.ad - Skin purpura, ecchymoses or necrosis
X.af X - Systemic/Distant conditions, syndromes and reactions
X.af - Thrombotic microangiopathy
XI.b XI - Miscellaneous
XI.b - Chest pain (acute or subacute), lone or prominent
XIV.a XIV - Hemoglobinopathies - Abnormal hemoglobin states (acquired)
XIV.a - Methemoglobinemia
XV.c XV - Pathology
XV.c - Path: Organizing pneumonia (OP/BOOP) pattern (see also Id)
1

Sulfasalazine

I.a I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.a - Pneumonitis (ILD), acute and/or severe (may cause ARDS)
I.b I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.b - Pneumonitis (ILD)
I.c I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.c - Eosinophilic pneumonia (pulmonary infiltrates and eosinophilia)
I.d I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.d - Organizing pneumonia pattern (an area or areas of consolidation on imaging)
I.g I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.g - Pulmonary fibrosis
I.m I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.m - ILD with a granulomatous component
II.d II - Pulmonary edema - Acute lung injury - ARDS
II.d - Pulmonary edema, cardiogenic
IV.y IV - Airway involvement
IV.y - Eosinophilic airway disease (asthma, bronchitis, bronchiolitis)
V.a V - Pleural and/or pericardial involvement
V.a - Pleural effusion
V.b V - Pleural and/or pericardial involvement
V.b - Eosinophilic pleural effusion
V.d V - Pleural and/or pericardial involvement
V.d - Pleural/pericardial effusion, ANA positive (DI lupus)
V.m V - Pleural and/or pericardial involvement
V.m - Pleuropericardial effusion (ANA unknown or negative)
VI.d VI - Pulmonary vasculopathies
VI.d - Pulmonary vasculitis or capillaritis
VII.a VII - Mediastinal involvement
VII.a - Lymphadenopathy (intrathoracic)
X.a X - Systemic/Distant conditions, syndromes and reactions
X.a - DRES syndrome - DRESS-like reaction
X.d X - Systemic/Distant conditions, syndromes and reactions
X.d - Lupus - Lupus syndrome (see also Vd)
X.g X - Systemic/Distant conditions, syndromes and reactions
X.g - Hypersensitivity reaction (may manifest with fever and/or skin, throat or airway involvement)
X.k X - Systemic/Distant conditions, syndromes and reactions
X.k - Sarcoid-like granulomatosis (endo-/extrathoracic)
X.s X - Systemic/Distant conditions, syndromes and reactions
X.s - Vasculitis, pulmonary (w/wo AH), extrapulmonary, systemic: ANCA-positive
X.u X - Systemic/Distant conditions, syndromes and reactions
X.u - Multiple organ dysfunction/failure (MODS/MOF)
XI.b XI - Miscellaneous
XI.b - Chest pain (acute or subacute), lone or prominent
XI.c XI - Miscellaneous
XI.c - Pleuritic chest pain
XII.c XII - Cardiovascular involvement / toxicity
XII.c - Pericardial effusion (w/wo tamponade)
XII.d XII - Cardiovascular involvement / toxicity
XII.d - Myocarditis (can be fulminant)
XII.h XII - Cardiovascular involvement / toxicity
XII.h - Eosinophilic myocarditis
XIV.a XIV - Hemoglobinopathies - Abnormal hemoglobin states (acquired)
XIV.a - Methemoglobinemia
XV.c XV - Pathology
XV.c - Path: Organizing pneumonia (OP/BOOP) pattern (see also Id)
XV.e XV - Pathology
XV.e - Path: ILD with a granulomatous component (see also Im)
XV.f XV - Pathology
XV.f - Path: Diffuse alveolar damage (DAD-pattern) (see also IL)
XV.k XV - Pathology
XV.k - Path: Desquamative interstitial pneumonia (DIP-pattern)
XV.ac XV - Pathology
XV.ac - Path: Pulmonary vasculitis other than capillaritis
XVII.w XVII - Infections & related conditions
XVII.w - Hypogammaglobulinemia - Antibody deficiency
XIX.a XIX - Cytological, biochemical features of/in BAL, pleural fluid or FNA
XIX.a - BAL: An excess proportion of lymphocytes
XIX.c XIX - Cytological, biochemical features of/in BAL, pleural fluid or FNA
XIX.c - BAL: An excess proportion of eosinophils
1