I.x

Pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (PPFE)

(Fr: fibroelastose pleuropulmonaire - Fibrose biapicale). A disease of the pleuropulmonary interface (see also under Vp). Spontaneous pneumothorax often seen as a complication. Formerly called 'Upper Lobe Fibrosis' - Usually localizes in the apices and upper halves bilaterally. The pleura en-face appears to be thickened. Pneumothorax common and difficult to treat. Biopsy: extreme caution required as pneumothorax and prolonged air leak is a common complication. Not all cases are histopathologically documented. Pleural biopsy may be detrimental with no consistent benefit in terms of management (PMID 25082907). Some case reports, despite containing the label PPFE in title and or text, may merely correspond to a 'clinical-imaging pattern consistent with pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis' (i.e. PPFE sine pathology)

Last update : 01/01/1970
 

Causative drugs

13

Carmustine (BCNU)

I.a I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.a - Pneumonitis (ILD), acute, severe (may occasion an ARDS picture)
I.b I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.b - Pneumonitis (ILD)
I.g I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.g - Pulmonary fibrosis (Not otherwise specified)
I.l I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.l - Diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) (see alsoo under IIb and XVf)
I.x I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.x - Pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (PPFE)
I.ad I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.ad - Radiation recall pneumonitis
II.a II - Pulmonary edema - Acute lung injury - ARDS
II.a - Pulmonary edema, noncardiogenic (NCPE)
II.b II - Pulmonary edema - Acute lung injury - ARDS
II.b - ARDS - Acute lung injury
V.a V - Pleural and/or pericardial involvement
V.a - Pleural effusion
V.f V - Pleural and/or pericardial involvement
V.f - Pneumothorax
V.m V - Pleural and/or pericardial involvement
V.m - Pleuropericardial effusion (ANA unknown or negative)
V.ab V - Pleural and/or pericardial involvement
V.ab - Pneumothorax, bilateral
XII.c XII - Cardiovascular involvement / toxicity
XII.c - Pericardial effusion (w/wo tamponade)
XV.a XV - Pathology
XV.a - Path: NSIP-cellular pattern (see also Ia, Ib)
XV.f XV - Pathology
XV.f - Path: Diffuse alveolar damage (DAD-pattern) (see also IL)
XV.h XV - Pathology
XV.h - Path: NSIP-fibrotic pattern
XV.i XV - Pathology
XV.i - Path: Pneumocyte atypia (reactive epithelial cells) (a.k.a. the "Napoleon Hat" sign)
XV.ap XV - Pathology
XV.ap - Path: Pleuroparenchymal fibrosis/fibroelastosis (PPFE)
XVI.a XVI - Imaging
XVI.a - Imaging: Diffuse haze
XVI.b XVI - Imaging
XVI.b - Imaging: Ground-glass opacities (GGO) / shadowing
XVI.m XVI - Imaging
XVI.m - Imaging: Interlobular septal thickening
2

Chemotherapy, antineoplastic

I.a I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.a - Pneumonitis (ILD), acute, severe (may occasion an ARDS picture)
I.b I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.b - Pneumonitis (ILD)
I.c I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.c - Eosinophilic pneumonia (pulmonary infiltrates and eosinophilia)
I.d I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.d - Organizing pneumonia pattern (an area or areas of consolidation on imaging)
I.f I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.f - Acute fibrinous organizing pneumonia (AFOP)
I.g I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.g - Pulmonary fibrosis (Not otherwise specified)
I.h I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.h - Subclinical pulmonary infiltrates/ILD
I.k I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.k - Lung nodule or nodules
I.l I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.l - Diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) (see alsoo under IIb and XVf)
I.m I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.m - ILD with a granulomatous component
I.n I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.n - Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP)
I.v I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.v - Altered lung function/PFTs (can be subclinical)
I.w I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.w - Rapidly progressive ILD/pulmonary fibrosis (Hamman-Rich syndrome)
I.x I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.x - Pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (PPFE)
I.y I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.y - Progression, acceleration or exacerbation of preexisting ILD/fibrosis
I.aa I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.aa - Delayed ILD, -pneumonitis, -fibrosis
I.ad I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.ad - Radiation recall pneumonitis
I.au I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.au - Chemotherapy lung - The chemotherapy lung
II.a II - Pulmonary edema - Acute lung injury - ARDS
II.a - Pulmonary edema, noncardiogenic (NCPE)
II.b II - Pulmonary edema - Acute lung injury - ARDS
II.b - ARDS - Acute lung injury
II.c II - Pulmonary edema - Acute lung injury - ARDS
II.c - ARDS and the hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS)
II.d II - Pulmonary edema - Acute lung injury - ARDS
II.d - Pulmonary edema, cardiogenic
III.a III - Pulmonary/alveolar hemorrhage
III.a - Alveolar hemorrhage, diffuse (DAH)
IV.a IV - Airway involvement
IV.a - Bronchospasm - Wheezing - Asthma
IV.k IV - Airway involvement
IV.k - Bronchiectasis
V.a V - Pleural and/or pericardial involvement
V.a - Pleural effusion
V.f V - Pleural and/or pericardial involvement
V.f - Pneumothorax
V.ab V - Pleural and/or pericardial involvement
V.ab - Pneumothorax, bilateral
VI.b VI - Pulmonary vasculopathies
VI.b - Pulmonary arterial hypertension
VI.c VI - Pulmonary vasculopathies
VI.c - Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease
VI.f VI - Pulmonary vasculopathies
VI.f - Hemolytic and uremic syndrome (HUS). See also under Xaf
VII.a VII - Mediastinal involvement
VII.a - Lymphadenopathy (intrathoracic)
VII.h VII - Mediastinal involvement
VII.h - Pneumomediastinum (may cause UAO)
VIII.a VIII - Central-large-upper airway (incl pharyngeal-nasal) involvement
VIII.a - Angioedema (may cause UAO, asphyxia and death)
IX.f IX - Neuromuscular / CNS involvement - Disordered breathing during sleep
IX.f - Hiccup
IX.j IX - Neuromuscular / CNS involvement - Disordered breathing during sleep
IX.j - Phrenic nerve injury - Hemi- or bilateral diaphragmatic paralysis
IX.o IX - Neuromuscular / CNS involvement - Disordered breathing during sleep
IX.o - Pneumorachis
X.c X - Systemic/Distant conditions, syndromes and reactions
X.c - Capillary leak syndrome (CLS)
X.d X - Systemic/Distant conditions, syndromes and reactions
X.d - Lupus - Lupus syndrome (see also Vd)
X.f X - Systemic/Distant conditions, syndromes and reactions
X.f - Anaphylaxis
X.g X - Systemic/Distant conditions, syndromes and reactions
X.g - Hypersensitivity reactions (may involve skin, throat and/or airways)
X.k X - Systemic/Distant conditions, syndromes and reactions
X.k - Sarcoid-like granulomatosis (endo-/extrathoracic)
X.n X - Systemic/Distant conditions, syndromes and reactions
X.n - Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS)
XI.b XI - Miscellaneous
XI.b - Chest pain (acute or subacute), lone or prominent
XI.n XI - Miscellaneous
XI.n - Neutropenia, agranulocytosis (w/wo infection/sepsis)
XI.w XI - Miscellaneous
XI.w - Cavitation/necrosis of lung tumor or metastases
XII.a XII - Cardiovascular involvement / toxicity
XII.a - Left ventricular dysfunction/failure
XII.b XII - Cardiovascular involvement / toxicity
XII.b - Valvular heart disease and/or dysfunction
XII.c XII - Cardiovascular involvement / toxicity
XII.c - Pericardial effusion (w/wo tamponade)
XII.e XII - Cardiovascular involvement / toxicity
XII.e - Takotsubo (stress) cardiomyopathy
XII.f XII - Cardiovascular involvement / toxicity
XII.f - Cardiomyopathy (acute, subacute, chronic)
XII.g XII - Cardiovascular involvement / toxicity
XII.g - Myocardial ischemia/infarction - Coronary artery disease, acute
XII.l XII - Cardiovascular involvement / toxicity
XII.l - Cardiac arrhythmias or dysrhythmias (AF, VT, VF, TdP)
XII.s XII - Cardiovascular involvement / toxicity
XII.s - Conduction disorders - Heart block (bundle branch- or AV-)
XII.ai XII - Cardiovascular involvement / toxicity
XII.ai - Cardiotoxicity
XIII.a XIII - Neoplastic conditions
XIII.a - Lung cancer
XIII.b XIII - Neoplastic conditions
XIII.b - Lymphoproliferative disease (pulmonary, endobronchial, endothoracic)
XIII.d XIII - Neoplastic conditions
XIII.d - Malignant mesothelioma (pleural, pericardial)
XV.c XV - Pathology
XV.c - Path: Organizing pneumonia (OP/BOOP) pattern (see also Id)
XV.d XV - Pathology
XV.d - Path: Acute fibrinous organizing pneumonia (AFOP-pattern) (see also If)
XV.f XV - Pathology
XV.f - Path: Diffuse alveolar damage (DAD-pattern) (see also IL)
XV.i XV - Pathology
XV.i - Path: Pneumocyte atypia (reactive epithelial cells) (a.k.a. the "Napoleon Hat" sign)
XV.l XV - Pathology
XV.l - Path: Pulmonary fibrosis (not otherwise specified or unclassifiable)
XV.ak XV - Pathology
XV.ak - Path: Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease (PVOD)
XV.am XV - Pathology
XV.am - Path: Thrombosis in pulmonary arterioles/venules
XV.ba XV - Pathology
XV.ba - Path: Granulomatous lymphadenopathy
XVI.ab XVI - Imaging
XVI.ab - Imaging: Cavitating lung nodule, mass or nodules (see also Iq, XIs, XIIi, XVIaa and XVIIp)
XVI.af XVI - Imaging
XVI.af - Imaging: Lung cysts or bullae (see also XVI ah/bf)
XVI.bf XVI - Imaging
XVI.bf - Imaging: Tumoral cavitation
XVI.bl XVI - Imaging
XVI.bl - Imaging: An area or areas of avid tracer uptake in the lung/chest on 18F-PET scan
XVII.b XVII - Infections & related conditions
XVII.b - Opportunistic pulmonary/systemic infection
XVII.c XVII - Infections & related conditions
XVII.c - Aspergillosis, pulmonary (invasive, allergic [ABPA], or mycetoma)
XVII.e XVII - Infections & related conditions
XVII.e - Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia
XVII.g XVII - Infections & related conditions
XVII.g - Tuberculosis (pulmonary, extrapulmonary, reactivation or de novo)
XVII.j XVII - Infections & related conditions
XVII.j - Mucormycosis (pulmonary, tracheobronchial or systemic)
XVII.r XVII - Infections & related conditions
XVII.r - Fungal infection (pulmonary/extrapulmonary)
XVII.af XVII - Infections & related conditions
XVII.af - Reactivation of a prior pulmonary infection (TB, melioidosis)
XIX.g XIX - Cytological, biochemical features of/in BAL, pleural fluid or FNA
XIX.g - BAL: Atypical epithelial cells (poetically named "Napoleon Hat" sign)
2

Cyclophosphamide

I.a I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.a - Pneumonitis (ILD), acute, severe (may occasion an ARDS picture)
I.b I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.b - Pneumonitis (ILD)
I.d I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.d - Organizing pneumonia pattern (an area or areas of consolidation on imaging)
I.g I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.g - Pulmonary fibrosis (Not otherwise specified)
I.l I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.l - Diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) (see alsoo under IIb and XVf)
I.x I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.x - Pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (PPFE)
I.aa I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.aa - Delayed ILD, -pneumonitis, -fibrosis
II.a II - Pulmonary edema - Acute lung injury - ARDS
II.a - Pulmonary edema, noncardiogenic (NCPE)
II.b II - Pulmonary edema - Acute lung injury - ARDS
II.b - ARDS - Acute lung injury
III.a III - Pulmonary/alveolar hemorrhage
III.a - Alveolar hemorrhage, diffuse (DAH)
IV.a IV - Airway involvement
IV.a - Bronchospasm - Wheezing - Asthma
V.a V - Pleural and/or pericardial involvement
V.a - Pleural effusion
V.b V - Pleural and/or pericardial involvement
V.b - Eosinophilic pleural effusion
V.c V - Pleural and/or pericardial involvement
V.c - Pleural thickening
V.f V - Pleural and/or pericardial involvement
V.f - Pneumothorax
VI.c VI - Pulmonary vasculopathies
VI.c - Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease
IX.f IX - Neuromuscular / CNS involvement - Disordered breathing during sleep
IX.f - Hiccup
X.f X - Systemic/Distant conditions, syndromes and reactions
X.f - Anaphylaxis
XI.b XI - Miscellaneous
XI.b - Chest pain (acute or subacute), lone or prominent
XI.c XI - Miscellaneous
XI.c - Pleuritic chest pain (see also under Vi)
XI.p XI - Miscellaneous
XI.p - Chest deformity: platythorax
XII.a XII - Cardiovascular involvement / toxicity
XII.a - Left ventricular dysfunction/failure
XII.c XII - Cardiovascular involvement / toxicity
XII.c - Pericardial effusion (w/wo tamponade)
XII.f XII - Cardiovascular involvement / toxicity
XII.f - Cardiomyopathy (acute, subacute, chronic)
XII.g XII - Cardiovascular involvement / toxicity
XII.g - Myocardial ischemia/infarction - Coronary artery disease, acute
XII.s XII - Cardiovascular involvement / toxicity
XII.s - Conduction disorders - Heart block (bundle branch- or AV-)
XV.a XV - Pathology
XV.a - Path: NSIP-cellular pattern (see also Ia, Ib)
XV.c XV - Pathology
XV.c - Path: Organizing pneumonia (OP/BOOP) pattern (see also Id)
XV.f XV - Pathology
XV.f - Path: Diffuse alveolar damage (DAD-pattern) (see also IL)
XV.h XV - Pathology
XV.h - Path: NSIP-fibrotic pattern
XV.i XV - Pathology
XV.i - Path: Pneumocyte atypia (reactive epithelial cells) (a.k.a. the "Napoleon Hat" sign)
XV.ak XV - Pathology
XV.ak - Path: Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease (PVOD)
XV.ap XV - Pathology
XV.ap - Path: Pleuroparenchymal fibrosis/fibroelastosis (PPFE)
XVI.ap XVI - Imaging
XVI.ap - Imaging: Pleural thickening w/wo rounded atelectasis
XVI.bl XVI - Imaging
XVI.bl - Imaging: An area or areas of avid tracer uptake in the lung/chest on 18F-PET scan
XVII.b XVII - Infections & related conditions
XVII.b - Opportunistic pulmonary/systemic infection
XVII.e XVII - Infections & related conditions
XVII.e - Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia
XVII.q XVII - Infections & related conditions
XVII.q - Viral pneumonia
XIX.a XIX - Cytological, biochemical features of/in BAL, pleural fluid or FNA
XIX.a - BAL: An excess proportion of lymphocytes
2

Radiation therapy (medium term & late effects)

I.c I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.c - Eosinophilic pneumonia (pulmonary infiltrates and eosinophilia)
I.d I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.d - Organizing pneumonia pattern (an area or areas of consolidation on imaging)
I.g I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.g - Pulmonary fibrosis (Not otherwise specified)
I.h I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.h - Subclinical pulmonary infiltrates/ILD
I.o I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.o - Focal/localized area of pneumonitis/fibrosis
I.v I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.v - Altered lung function/PFTs (can be subclinical)
I.x I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.x - Pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (PPFE)
II.b II - Pulmonary edema - Acute lung injury - ARDS
II.b - ARDS - Acute lung injury
III.c III - Pulmonary/alveolar hemorrhage
III.c - Hemoptysis
IV.h IV - Airway involvement
IV.h - Large airway necrosis
IV.k IV - Airway involvement
IV.k - Bronchiectasis
IV.m IV - Airway involvement
IV.m - Bronchial stenosis/stricture
V.a V - Pleural and/or pericardial involvement
V.a - Pleural effusion
V.b V - Pleural and/or pericardial involvement
V.b - Eosinophilic pleural effusion
V.c V - Pleural and/or pericardial involvement
V.c - Pleural thickening
V.f V - Pleural and/or pericardial involvement
V.f - Pneumothorax
V.h V - Pleural and/or pericardial involvement
V.h - Chylothorax
V.l V - Pleural and/or pericardial involvement
V.l - Malignant pleural mesothelioma
V.m V - Pleural and/or pericardial involvement
V.m - Pleuropericardial effusion (ANA unknown or negative)
V.t V - Pleural and/or pericardial involvement
V.t - The apical cap
VI.c VI - Pulmonary vasculopathies
VI.c - Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease
VI.ab VI - Pulmonary vasculopathies
VI.ab - Pulmonary artery stenosis
VII.d VII - Mediastinal involvement
VII.d - Fibrosing mediastinitis
VII.i VII - Mediastinal involvement
VII.i - Mediastinitis
VII.j VII - Mediastinal involvement
VII.j - Compression of mediastinal structures/organs
VII.l VII - Mediastinal involvement
VII.l - Calcification of mediastinal lymph nodes
VIII.c VIII - Central-large-upper airway (incl pharyngeal-nasal) involvement
VIII.c - Upper airway obstruction other than angioedema or hematoma
VIII.j VIII - Central-large-upper airway (incl pharyngeal-nasal) involvement
VIII.j - Laryngeal disorder: dysphonia, hoarseness
VIII.r VIII - Central-large-upper airway (incl pharyngeal-nasal) involvement
VIII.r - Tracheal necrosis, chondronecrosis, perforation
VIII.t VIII - Central-large-upper airway (incl pharyngeal-nasal) involvement
VIII.t - Vocal cord paresis/paralysis
VIII.ab VIII - Central-large-upper airway (incl pharyngeal-nasal) involvement
VIII.ab - Tracheal/bronchial fistula
IX.a IX - Neuromuscular / CNS involvement - Disordered breathing during sleep
IX.a - Diaphragm/inspiratory muscle weakness/paralysis (w/wo ARF)
XI.g XI - Miscellaneous
XI.g - Aspiration, aspiration pneumonia (w/wo demonstrable pharyngeal dysmotility)
XI.h XI - Miscellaneous
XI.h - Esophageal pathology (erosion, ulcer, tear, rupture, fistula)
XI.i XI - Miscellaneous
XI.i - Esophageal toxicity
XI.p XI - Miscellaneous
XI.p - Chest deformity: platythorax
XI.v XI - Miscellaneous
XI.v - Rib fracture
XI.ax XI - Miscellaneous
XI.ax - Esophageal stenosis/stricture
XI.bb XI - Miscellaneous
XI.bb - Aorto-esophageal fistula
XII.a XII - Cardiovascular involvement / toxicity
XII.a - Left ventricular dysfunction/failure
XII.b XII - Cardiovascular involvement / toxicity
XII.b - Valvular heart disease and/or dysfunction
XII.f XII - Cardiovascular involvement / toxicity
XII.f - Cardiomyopathy (acute, subacute, chronic)
XII.g XII - Cardiovascular involvement / toxicity
XII.g - Myocardial ischemia/infarction - Coronary artery disease, acute
XII.k XII - Cardiovascular involvement / toxicity
XII.k - Pericardial thickening - Constrictive pericarditis
XII.o XII - Cardiovascular involvement / toxicity
XII.o - Coronary artery disease
XII.s XII - Cardiovascular involvement / toxicity
XII.s - Conduction disorders - Heart block (bundle branch- or AV-)
XII.ad XII - Cardiovascular involvement / toxicity
XII.ad - Effusive-constrictive pericarditis
XII.ak XII - Cardiovascular involvement / toxicity
XII.ak - Late left ventricular dysfunction/failure
XII.an XII - Cardiovascular involvement / toxicity
XII.an - Pericardial calcification
XII.bc XII - Cardiovascular involvement / toxicity
XII.bc - Coarctation of the aorta (acquired)
XIII.a XIII - Neoplastic conditions
XIII.a - Lung cancer
XIII.d XIII - Neoplastic conditions
XIII.d - Malignant mesothelioma (pleural, pericardial)
XIII.e XIII - Neoplastic conditions
XIII.e - Breast cancer
XIII.j XIII - Neoplastic conditions
XIII.j - Pulmonary synovial sarcoma
XIII.l XIII - Neoplastic conditions
XIII.l - Chondrosarcoma
XIII.m XIII - Neoplastic conditions
XIII.m - Tumor of the heart
XV.f XV - Pathology
XV.f - Path: Diffuse alveolar damage (DAD-pattern) (see also IL)
XV.l XV - Pathology
XV.l - Path: Pulmonary fibrosis (not otherwise specified or unclassifiable)
XVI.ab XVI - Imaging
XVI.ab - Imaging: Cavitating lung nodule, mass or nodules (see also Iq, XIs, XIIi, XVIaa and XVIIp)
XVI.bi XVI - Imaging
XVI.bi - Imaging: Hyperlucent lung
XVI.bj XVI - Imaging
XVI.bj - Imaging: Atelectasis (a combination of increased density and volume loss. Typically lobar)
2

Radiation therapy to the chest

I.a I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.a - Pneumonitis (ILD), acute, severe (may occasion an ARDS picture)
I.b I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.b - Pneumonitis (ILD)
I.c I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.c - Eosinophilic pneumonia (pulmonary infiltrates and eosinophilia)
I.d I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.d - Organizing pneumonia pattern (an area or areas of consolidation on imaging)
I.g I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.g - Pulmonary fibrosis (Not otherwise specified)
I.h I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.h - Subclinical pulmonary infiltrates/ILD
I.k I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.k - Lung nodule or nodules
I.l I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.l - Diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) (see alsoo under IIb and XVf)
I.o I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.o - Focal/localized area of pneumonitis/fibrosis
I.v I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.v - Altered lung function/PFTs (can be subclinical)
I.x I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.x - Pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (PPFE)
I.y I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.y - Progression, acceleration or exacerbation of preexisting ILD/fibrosis
II.b II - Pulmonary edema - Acute lung injury - ARDS
II.b - ARDS - Acute lung injury
III.h III - Pulmonary/alveolar hemorrhage
III.h - Major/massive hemoptysis
IV.h IV - Airway involvement
IV.h - Large airway necrosis
IV.m IV - Airway involvement
IV.m - Bronchial stenosis/stricture
V.a V - Pleural and/or pericardial involvement
V.a - Pleural effusion
V.c V - Pleural and/or pericardial involvement
V.c - Pleural thickening
V.f V - Pleural and/or pericardial involvement
V.f - Pneumothorax
V.h V - Pleural and/or pericardial involvement
V.h - Chylothorax
V.k V - Pleural and/or pericardial involvement
V.k - Pleural calcifications
VI.c VI - Pulmonary vasculopathies
VI.c - Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease
VI.x VI - Pulmonary vasculopathies
VI.x - Pulmonary lymphangiectasis
VII.d VII - Mediastinal involvement
VII.d - Fibrosing mediastinitis
VIII.c VIII - Central-large-upper airway (incl pharyngeal-nasal) involvement
VIII.c - Upper airway obstruction other than angioedema or hematoma
VIII.r VIII - Central-large-upper airway (incl pharyngeal-nasal) involvement
VIII.r - Tracheal necrosis, chondronecrosis, perforation
VIII.t VIII - Central-large-upper airway (incl pharyngeal-nasal) involvement
VIII.t - Vocal cord paresis/paralysis
VIII.ab VIII - Central-large-upper airway (incl pharyngeal-nasal) involvement
VIII.ab - Tracheal/bronchial fistula
IX.j IX - Neuromuscular / CNS involvement - Disordered breathing during sleep
IX.j - Phrenic nerve injury - Hemi- or bilateral diaphragmatic paralysis
XI.b XI - Miscellaneous
XI.b - Chest pain (acute or subacute), lone or prominent
XI.h XI - Miscellaneous
XI.h - Esophageal pathology (erosion, ulcer, tear, rupture, fistula)
XI.i XI - Miscellaneous
XI.i - Esophageal toxicity
XI.j XI - Miscellaneous
XI.j - Esophageal dysmotility
XI.w XI - Miscellaneous
XI.w - Cavitation/necrosis of lung tumor or metastases
XI.ag XI - Miscellaneous
XI.ag - Vertebral compression fracture
XII.b XII - Cardiovascular involvement / toxicity
XII.b - Valvular heart disease and/or dysfunction
XII.k XII - Cardiovascular involvement / toxicity
XII.k - Pericardial thickening - Constrictive pericarditis
XII.o XII - Cardiovascular involvement / toxicity
XII.o - Coronary artery disease
XII.s XII - Cardiovascular involvement / toxicity
XII.s - Conduction disorders - Heart block (bundle branch- or AV-)
XIII.e XIII - Neoplastic conditions
XIII.e - Breast cancer
XV.c XV - Pathology
XV.c - Path: Organizing pneumonia (OP/BOOP) pattern (see also Id)
XV.f XV - Pathology
XV.f - Path: Diffuse alveolar damage (DAD-pattern) (see also IL)
XV.h XV - Pathology
XV.h - Path: NSIP-fibrotic pattern
XV.i XV - Pathology
XV.i - Path: Pneumocyte atypia (reactive epithelial cells) (a.k.a. the "Napoleon Hat" sign)
XV.bm XV - Pathology
XV.bm - Path: Diffuse lymphangiectasis
XVI.bl XVI - Imaging
XVI.bl - Imaging: An area or areas of avid tracer uptake in the lung/chest on 18F-PET scan
XVII.e XVII - Infections & related conditions
XVII.e - Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia
XVII.af XVII - Infections & related conditions
XVII.af - Reactivation of a prior pulmonary infection (TB, melioidosis)
XIX.a XIX - Cytological, biochemical features of/in BAL, pleural fluid or FNA
XIX.a - BAL: An excess proportion of lymphocytes
3

Statins

I.a I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.a - Pneumonitis (ILD), acute, severe (may occasion an ARDS picture)
I.b I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.b - Pneumonitis (ILD)
I.d I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.d - Organizing pneumonia pattern (an area or areas of consolidation on imaging)
I.f I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.f - Acute fibrinous organizing pneumonia (AFOP)
I.g I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.g - Pulmonary fibrosis (Not otherwise specified)
I.u I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.u - Relapsing or migrating pneumonitis/pneumonia (see also Id)
I.x I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.x - Pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (PPFE)
I.ar I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.ar - The association of ILD and myositis
IV.d IV - Airway involvement
IV.d - Cough (lone)
V.a V - Pleural and/or pericardial involvement
V.a - Pleural effusion
V.b V - Pleural and/or pericardial involvement
V.b - Eosinophilic pleural effusion
V.d V - Pleural and/or pericardial involvement
V.d - Pleural/pericardial effusion, ANA positive (DI lupus)
V.h V - Pleural and/or pericardial involvement
V.h - Chylothorax
VIII.a VIII - Central-large-upper airway (incl pharyngeal-nasal) involvement
VIII.a - Angioedema (may cause UAO, asphyxia and death)
IX.a IX - Neuromuscular / CNS involvement - Disordered breathing during sleep
IX.a - Diaphragm/inspiratory muscle weakness/paralysis (w/wo ARF)
IX.ac IX - Neuromuscular / CNS involvement - Disordered breathing during sleep
IX.ac - Myositis of the respiratory muscles (May lead to respiratory muscle paralysis)
X.d X - Systemic/Distant conditions, syndromes and reactions
X.d - Lupus - Lupus syndrome (see also Vd)
X.j X - Systemic/Distant conditions, syndromes and reactions
X.j - Myopathy-Myositis-Polymyositis (see also under Xba)
X.ba X - Systemic/Distant conditions, syndromes and reactions
X.ba - Rhabdomyolysis (see also under Xj)
XI.b XI - Miscellaneous
XI.b - Chest pain (acute or subacute), lone or prominent
XII.ab XII - Cardiovascular involvement / toxicity
XII.ab - Pericardial fat necrosis
XV.c XV - Pathology
XV.c - Path: Organizing pneumonia (OP/BOOP) pattern (see also Id)
XV.d XV - Pathology
XV.d - Path: Acute fibrinous organizing pneumonia (AFOP-pattern) (see also If)
XV.h XV - Pathology
XV.h - Path: NSIP-fibrotic pattern
XV.o XV - Pathology
XV.o - Path: Endogenous lipoid pneumonia (phospholipidosis)
XV.ap XV - Pathology
XV.ap - Path: Pleuroparenchymal fibrosis/fibroelastosis (PPFE)
XV.co XV - Pathology
XV.co - Path: Foamy inclusions in alveolar macrophages and/or in other lung cells
XIX.f XIX - Cytological, biochemical features of/in BAL, pleural fluid or FNA
XIX.f - BAL: Foamy macrophages
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Status post-hematopoietic stem cell (HSCT) or bone marrow transplantation (BMT)

I.b I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.b - Pneumonitis (ILD)
I.d I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.d - Organizing pneumonia pattern (an area or areas of consolidation on imaging)
I.f I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.f - Acute fibrinous organizing pneumonia (AFOP)
I.g I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.g - Pulmonary fibrosis (Not otherwise specified)
I.n I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.n - Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP)
I.v I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.v - Altered lung function/PFTs (can be subclinical)
I.x I - Interstitial/parenchymal lung disease
I.x - Pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (PPFE)
II.a II - Pulmonary edema - Acute lung injury - ARDS
II.a - Pulmonary edema, noncardiogenic (NCPE)
II.e II - Pulmonary edema - Acute lung injury - ARDS
II.e - Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) (May cause ARDS)
II.n II - Pulmonary edema - Acute lung injury - ARDS
II.n - Engraftment syndrome
III.a III - Pulmonary/alveolar hemorrhage
III.a - Alveolar hemorrhage, diffuse (DAH)
IV.c IV - Airway involvement
IV.c - Obliterative bronchiolitis (a pattern consistent with) (see also IVn, XVx)
V.f V - Pleural and/or pericardial involvement
V.f - Pneumothorax
VI.b VI - Pulmonary vasculopathies
VI.b - Pulmonary arterial hypertension
X.c X - Systemic/Distant conditions, syndromes and reactions
X.c - Capillary leak syndrome (CLS)
XII.a XII - Cardiovascular involvement / toxicity
XII.a - Left ventricular dysfunction/failure
XV.a XV - Pathology
XV.a - Path: NSIP-cellular pattern (see also Ia, Ib)
XV.c XV - Pathology
XV.c - Path: Organizing pneumonia (OP/BOOP) pattern (see also Id)
XV.d XV - Pathology
XV.d - Path: Acute fibrinous organizing pneumonia (AFOP-pattern) (see also If)
XV.f XV - Pathology
XV.f - Path: Diffuse alveolar damage (DAD-pattern) (see also IL)
XV.g XV - Pathology
XV.g - Path: Alveolar hemorrhage (see also IIIa)
XV.ak XV - Pathology
XV.ak - Path: Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease (PVOD)
XV.ap XV - Pathology
XV.ap - Path: Pleuroparenchymal fibrosis/fibroelastosis (PPFE)
XV.bv XV - Pathology
XV.bv - Path: Pulmonary cytolytic thrombi
XVI.w XVI - Imaging
XVI.w - Imaging: Lung nodule or nodules
XVII.m XVII - Infections & related conditions
XVII.m - Fungal airway infection
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